Scottish Chambers of Commerce (SCC) signed a memorandum of understanding with China’s Chamber of International Commerce in Beijing.
It gives Scottish firms access to China’s “Belt and Road” programme.
The programme aims to link China to the west via a land and maritime infrastructure network across Eurasia.
The agreement was reached on the eve of a 10-day SCC-led trade mission to Shenzhen, Beijing and Shandong Province.
SCC said it expected the mission to deliver “substantial” trade agreements for participating Scottish businesses.
The chamber said the memorandum meant China’s government-led trade body would provide Scots firms with information and support on trade and investment opportunities.
It will also “assist them to overcome problems in international trade and economic co-operation”.
SCC’s international trade ambassador for China, David Valentine, said: “This is a historic agreement that will give Scottish businesses enhanced access to one of the most ambitious and visionary infrastructure plans of the modern era.
“It marks a step change in the development of B2B (business to business) links between Scotland and China.
“Forging relationships such as these is the key to improving Scotland’s share of UK trade with the world’s most populous nation.”
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has been in China this week to “showcase Scottish business” and build tourism and academic links.
During the trip she described a meeting with Chinese Vice Premier Hu Chunhua in Beijing as “very constructive”.